Sex Education is the education of problems relating to sexual orientation, such as gender identities, responsibilities and personal responsibilities, the physiological basis of human sex, sexual function, basic, sexual aspects, and basic sexual behaviour. It also covers preventive care and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Sex education is a part of the wider educational curriculum and aims at developing knowledge, increasing sexual awareness and improving interpersonal skills through information dissemination. Sex education in India has been a contentious issue, with several governments banning it or not providing it altogether. In some areas, the demand for sex education has been high and has led to authorities removing the curriculum completely from schools.
According to the National Association of School Counselors, some 37 states require students to receive at least some sex education in school. These include Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, the District of Columbia, Idaho, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming. The laws vary somewhat from state to state, with some states making the teaching of sex education more extensive than others. Several states have free-for-all sexual education; others provide some but not all of the content needed. Some states require that teachers impart certain facts about human anatomy and reproductive functions, while others require that they only present basic information. Still others only give information about pregnancy and fertility and not mention masturbation, genitalia, contraceptive methods or contraceptives at all.
A majority of states require that students be taught certain information about sexually transmitted diseases (STD), which includes both the symptoms and treatment options. The content requirements vary according to state. In some states, exposure to pornography is considered acceptable, whereas in others it is strictly discouraged. Pregnancy, contraceptives and related materials are also mentioned, but their content requirements vary significantly from state to state. Several states have no information on the use of contraceptives, and the exact content requirements depend on the age of the participants.
Unplanned pregnancy refers to a situation in which a woman becomes pregnant without the consent of her partner. Sex education campaigns to try to address this concern, stressing the importance of being informed about sexuality and pregnancy. Several organizations, such as the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, urge doctors to provide accurate and comprehensive information about birth control, pregnancy and STD. According to the group, most women would like to know the reason for their unplanned pregnancy, how safe they are regarding contraceptive measures and what they can do to stop an impending unwanted pregnancy.
The majority of the states require instruction on human sexuality before students reach the age of puberty. This requirement is contained in the ninth grade health class. The first grade health class does not have a sex education requirement, and most states allow those states in which it is mandatory to provide instruction in sex education. Sexually transmitted diseases are also addressed in a number of states, with several classes that provide information on both STDs and HIV/AIDS. According to the National Association of School Nurses, many school nurses feel that providing consistent sex education is vital for reducing teen pregnancies.
Abstinence may also be addressed in various classes, depending on the age and content requirements. The information on abstinence is given in different formats, including books, videos, lectures, webinars and workshop. There are several abstinence support groups that provide information and help to individuals who are struggling to quit smoking, alcohol, drugs and other habits. Several states and the National Association of School Nurses urge the development of effective sex education and promote its implementation by educators, parents, school administrators and law enforcement officials.